Andrew Charles, M.D.
Headache Research and Treatment Program
Department of Neurology
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA


Education and Training
University of California at Berkeley, Bachelor of Arts, 1982.
University of California, Los Angeles, M.D., 1986.
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Internship in Internal Medicine, 1987.
UCLA Department of Neurology, Residency in Neurology, 1987-1990.
UCLA Department of Neurology, Neurology Research Fellowship, 1990 - 1992.

Board Certification
American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, 7/92
Headache Medicine Specialty Certification, 12/07

Honors and Awards
Regents Scholarship to U.C. Berkeley, 1978.
Regents Scholarship to UCLA School of Medicine, 1982.
Bachelor of Arts, Magna Cum Lauda, U.C. Berkeley, 1982.
Outstanding Graduate of 1982, Department of Biology, U.C. Berkeley.
Richard P. Walter Award, Neurology Dept., UCLA School of Med., 1986.
American Academy of Neurology Research Fellowship, 1990.
J. Louis Riehl Research Award, Neurology Dept., UCLA, 1990.
Golden Hammer Award for Excellence in Resident Teaching, UCLA Dept. of Neurology, 1998.
American Headache Society Presidential Lecture Award, 2006.
Harold G. Wolff Lecture Award, AHS 2012. (with co-authors)

Organization Leadership
Program Director, Headache Research and Treatment Program, Department of Neurology, 2004-Present
Board of Directors, American Headache Society 2010-Present
Board of Trustees, International Headache Society 2011-Present
Special Interest Group in Headache and Pain Director, American Neurological Association2009-Present
Headache and Pain Section Member, American Academy of Neurology, 2009-2011
Board of Directors, Headache Cooperative of the Pacific, 2009-Present
Co Chair - NINDS Common Data Elements Project Group for Headache, 2011-Present

Teaching/Administrative Experience
Director of Residency Training, UCLA Department of Neurology Residency Program, 1995- 2001.

Chair of Clinical Neurology Clerkship, UCLA School of Medicine, 1994-2000.

Courses Taught  Basic Neurology M203, UCLA School of Medicine, 1996-98.
Neurological Pathophysiology , UCLA School of Medicine, 1998-present.
Microanatomy A201, UCLA School of Medicine, 1991-1992.
Molecular Cell Biology  M209, UCLA ACCESS Graduate Program, 1995-1996.
Imaging in Neuroscience M272, UCLA Neuroscience IDP, 1997
Techniques in Neurobiology, NS 275 UCLA Neuroscience IDP 1996-1999.
Clinical Neuropharmacology, UCLA Neurology Residency Program 1998-Present.

Laboratory and Clinical Trainees
Marni Harris, Ph.D. 1995-97.
James Costantin, Ph.D. 1996-2000
Elizabeth Yoder, Ph.D. 1996-1998
Luis Beltran, Ph.D. 2001-2006
Albert Lai, M.D., Ph.D. 2001-2006
Kevin C. Brennan, M.D., 2005-2007
Hector Lopez-Valdez, D.V.M., Ph.D. 2005-2010
Marcelo Romero-Reyes, D.D.S., Ph.D. 2006-2010
Marisa Chang, M.D., 2008-2010
Molly Johnston, M.D. 2011-Present
Inna Keselman, M.D., 2011-Present


Neurology Residency Selection Committee, Dept. of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, 1993-present.
Graduate Medical Education Committee, UCLA School of Medicine, 1993-2004.
Core Clerkship Committee, UCLA School of Medicine, 1996-2000.
Admissions Committee, UCLA Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, 1995- 1998.
UCLA School of Medicine Master Plan Education Committee, 1996. 
American Neurological Association Long Range Planning Committee, 2000-2001.
Department of Neurology Appointment and Promotions Committee, 2006-2010
UCLA Campus Wide Committee on Committees, 2007-2009

American Neurological Association Long Range Planning Committee, 2000-2001
Clinical Trial Steering Committee – Amplatzer PFO Occluder Migraine Study, 2005-Present
American Neurological Association Membership Committee, 2007-2009
American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting Abstract Review Committee 2007-2009
American Headache Society Annual Scientific Meeting Program Committee 2009-Present
American Headache Society Membership Committee 2009-Present
International Headache Society Annual Meeting Program Committee 2009-Present
International Classification of Headache Disorders Migraine Working Group, 2010-Present

Selected Recent Lectures
American Headache Society Presidential Lecture, Los Angeles, 2006.
Japanese Headache Society, Yonago 2006.
Japanese Society of Clinical Neurophysiology, Tokyo 2007.
International Headache Society, Stockholm, 2007.
International Headache Research Symposium, Copenhagen, 2007.
National Headache Foundation/NIH Headache Research Symposium, Bethesda, 2008.
Neurology Grand Rounds University of California at Davis, 2009
Neurology Grand Rounds Washington University, St. Louis, 2009.
Neurology Grand Rounds Penn State University, Hershey, 2009.
Neurology Grand Rounds The Johns Hopkins University, 2009.
UCLA Update on Neurotherapeutics, Los Angeles, 2009.
UCLA Neurology for Non-Neurologists, Los Angeles, 2009.
American Academy of Neurology Teaching Course on Headache, Seattle, 2009
American Academy of Neurology Plenary Lecture, 2009
University of Arizona Neuroscience Symposium, 2009
American Neurological Association Annual Meeting Special Interest Group on Headache, Baltimore, 2009
University of Leiden Neuroscience Symposium, Netherlands 2010
Pri-Med Current Clinical Issues in Primary Care National Conference, 2010
Italian Headache Society, Sorrento, Italy 2010
American Headache Society Plenary Lecture,  Los Angeles 2010
American Headache Society Debate, Los Angeles, 2010
MSD Migraine Scientific Symposium, Berlin, Germany 2010
Lundbeck International Research Symposium in Honor of Jes Olesen, Cophenhagen Denmark, 2010
American Neurological Association Annual Meeting , 2010
East West Pain Symposium, Beijing , China 2010
American Headache Society Clinical Headache Update, Scottsdale, Arizona 2010
American Headache Society Chronic Migraine Education Program, New York, 2010
Neurology Grand Rounds, UC San Francisco, 2011
Artiss Powell Honorary Lecture, Robert Wood Johnson University Medical Center, 2011
American Headache Society Scottsdale Meeting, Scottsdale, 2011.
Mexican Academy of Neurology, Guadalajara 2011.
International Headache Society Teaching Course, Berlin 2011.
Turkish Neurology Congress, Antalya 2011
American Pain Society, Honolulu 2012
American Academy of Orofacial Pain, Pasadena, 2012
Japanese Neurological Society, Tokyo 2012
American Headache Society Annual Scientific Meeting Plenary Lecture, Los Angeles, 2012
American Headache Society Scottsdale Meeting, Scottsdale, 2012
University of New Mexico, Clinical & Translational Science Center and Cellular & Molecular Basis of Disease Seminar Series, 2012
Faculty, American Headache Society Comprehensive Migraine Education Program, in Miami, Atlanta, and Los Angeles, 2012
Faculty, International Headache Society Master School, Tokyo, 2012.

Consultant,  NBC Today Show  Organized and appeared on week-long program on headache, 1995.

Associate Editor,   Cephalalgia ,  2009-Present 

Ad hoc reviewer for:
Brain                                                                                              Journal of Cell Biology
Nature Cell Biology                                                                   Journal of Biological Chemistry
Proceedings of the National Academy of Science         Journal of Neuroscience       
Glia                                                                                                Journal of Physiology
Journal of Neurophysiology                                                    Lancet
Brain Research                                                                            Neurology
Journal of Neurochemistry                                                      Annals of Neurology
Journal of Neuroscience Research                                       Molecular Endocrinology
Molecular Pharmacology                                                       Headache
Neurobiology of Disease                                                           Cephalalgia

Review Panels
Department of the Army, Cell Biology Study Section, 1996.
NIH Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology Study Section, Ad-Hoc Reviewer, 1999.
NICHD Intramural Endocrinology Site Visit Committee, 1999.
State of Louisiana Research Funding Program, 1999-2001.

NINDS Neurological Sciences and Disorders-B Review Committee, 2000-2005

Ad Hoc Reviewer for Multiple NIH Review Committees, 2005-present

Volunteer Service
Clinical neurologist for Venice Family Clinic, 1991-2000

1. Sanderson, M.J., A.C. Charles and E.R. Dirksen. Mechanical stimulation and intercellular communication increases Ca2+ in epithelial cells. Cell Regulation 1: 585-596, 1990.
2. Mazziotta, J., C. Orfuss, H. Vinters, A. Charles, and R. Collins. A 49-year-old man with aseptic meningitis and multiple cranial neuropathies. Western Journal of Medicine 154: 307-314, 1991.
3. Charles, A.C., J.E. Merrill, E.R. Dirksen and M.J. Sanderson. Intercellular signaling in glial cells: Ca2+ waves and oscillations in response to mechanical stimulation and glutamate. Neuron, 6: 983-992, 1991.
4. Charles, A.C., C.C., Naus, D. Zhu, E.R. Dirksen, and M.J. Sanderson.Intercellular calcium signaling via gap junctions in glioma cells. Journal of Cell Biology 118:195-201, 1992.
5. Martin, F.C., A.C. Charles, M.J. Sanderson, and J.E. Merrill. Substances P stimulates interleukin-1 release by astrocytes via intracellular calcium. Brain Research 599:13-18,1992.
6. Charles, A.C., E.R. Dirksen, J.E. Merrill, and M.J. Sanderson. Mechanisms of intercellular calcium signaling in glial cells studied with dantrolene and thapsigargin. Glia 7: 134-145, 1993.
7. Zhong, L.T., T. Sarafian, D. J. Kane, A.C. Charles, S.P. Mah, R.H. Edwards and D.E. Bredeson. Bcl-2 inhibits death of central  neural cells induced by multiple agents. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 90:4533-4537, 1993.
8. Hales, T.G., M.J. Sanderson  and A.C. Charles. GABA has excitatory effects on GnRH secreting immortalized hypothalamic neurons. Neuroendocrinology 59:297-308, 1994.
9. Sneyd, J., A.C. Charles and M.J. Sanderson. A model for intercellular calcium waves  American Journal of Physiology, 266: C293-302 1994.
10. Sanderson, M.J., A.C. Charles, S. Boitano and E.R. Dirksen. Mechanisms and function of intercellular calcium signalling. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 98:173-187, 1994.
11. Charles, A.C.  Glia-neuron intercellular calcium signaling. Developmental Neuroscience 16:196-206, 1994.
12. Mitrovic, B., F. C. Martin, A.C. Charles, L. Ignarro and J.M. Merrill. Neurotransmitters and cytokines in CNS pathology. Progress in Brain Research 103: 319-30, 1994.
13. Charles, A.C. and T.G. Hales. Mechanisms of spontaneous calcium oscillations and action potentials in immortalized hypothalamic neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 73:56-64, 1995. 
14. Sneyd, J., B. T. Wetton, A.C. Charles and M.J. Sanderson. Intercellular calcium waves mediated by diffusion of inositol trisphosphate: a two-dimensional model. American Journal of Physiology 268(6 Pt 1): C1537-45, 1995.
15. Charles, A.C., S. K. Kodali, R.F. Tyndale.  Intercellular calcium waves in neurons. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 7:337-353,  1996. (Cover Image)
16. Zanotti, S.A. and A.C. Charles. Extracellular calcium sensing by glial cells - low extracellular calcium induces intracellular calcium release and intercellular signaling. Journal of Neurochemistry.  69: 594-602, 1997.  
17. Harris-White, M.E.,  S.A. Zanotti, S.A. Frautschy, , and A.C. Charles. Spiral intercellular calcium waves in hippocampal slice cultures. Journal of Neurophysiology 79:1045-1052, 1998. 
18. Bronstein, J.M., T.G. Hales, R.F. Tyndale, and A.C. Charles. An immortalized glial cell line that produces mature myelin proteins and functional GABAA receptors. Journal of Neurochemistry, 70, 483-491, 1998.
19. Charles, A.C. Intercellular calcium waves in glial cells. Glia 24:39-49, 1998. (Cover Image)
20.  Charles, A.C., E. Piros, C. Evans, and T.G. Hales. L-Type Ca2+ channels and K+ channels specifically modulate the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations and have distinct roles in prolactin release in GH3 cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274, 7508-7515, 1999.
21. Guthrie, P.B., J. Knappenberger, M. Segal, M.V.L. Bennett, A.C. Charles, and S.B. Kater. ATP released from astrocytes mediates glial calcium waves. Journal of Neuroscience 19, 520-528, 1999.
22. Costantin, J.L. and A.C. Charles. Spontaneous action potentials initiate rhythmic intercellular calcium waves in immortalized hypothalamic (GT1-1) neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 82, 429-435, 1999.
23. Charles, A.C. Nitric oxide pumps up calcium signaling. Nature Cell Biology E193-195, 1999.
24. Vitalis, E.A., J. L. Costantin, P. S. Tsai, H. Sakakibara, T. Iiri., J. F.  Martini, M. Taga, A. L.H. Choi, A.C. Charles, and Richard I. Weiner. Role of the cAMP signaling pathway in the regulation of GnRH secretion in GT1 cells. Proceedings of National Academy of Science 97:4, 1861-1866, 2000.
25. Piros, E., A.C. Charles, L. Song, C. Evans, and T.G. Hales. Cloned d-opioid receptors expressed in GH3 cells inhibit spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations and prolactin release through KIR channel activation. Journal of Neurophysiology, 83, 2691-2698, 2000.       
26. Costantin, J.L. and A.C. Charles. Frequency and amplitude modulation of Ca2+ signaling by K+ channels in a hypothalamic cell line. Journal of Neurophysiology 85, 295-304, 2001.
27. Charles, A.C., R.I. Weiner and J.L. Costantin. Cyclic AMP modulates the excitability of GT1 neurons via a cyclic nucleotide gated channel. Molecular Endocrinology 15:11, 997-1009, 2001.
28. Stout, C., J. L. Costantin, C.G. Naus, and A.C. Charles. Intercellular calcium signaling in astrocytes via ATP release through connexin hemichannels. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277: 10482-10488, 2002.
29. Charles, A.C., K. Asas, N. Mostovskaya, M. Danovitch, and T.G. Hales. Co-expression of delta opioid receptors with mu receptors in GH3 cells changes the functional response to mu agonists from inhibitory to excitatory. Molecular Pharmacology, 63:89-95, 2003.
30. Stout, C.E. and A.C. Charles.  Modulation of intercellular signaling in astrocytes by extracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+. Glia 43:265-273, 2003.
31. Beltran, L. and A.C. Charles. Riluzole inhibits the spontaneous activity of neuroendocrine cells by activation of K+ channels. British Journal of Pharmacology, 140: 881-888, 2003.
32. Zhang, Y., J. Bryant, A. Charles, R. Boado, W. and Pardridge.  Intravenous RNAi gene therapy targeting the human EGF receptor prolongs survival in intra-cranial brain cancer. Clinical Cancer Research, 10: 3667-3677, 2004.
33. Bryant, J.A., R.S. Finn, D.J. Slamon, T.F. Cloughesy, and A.C. Charles. EGF activates intracellular and intercellular calcium signaling by distinct pathways in tumor cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 3:1243-9., 2004.
34. Charles, A.C. and T.G. Hales. From inhibition to excitation: functional consequences of interaction between opioid receptors. Life Sciences, 76: 479-485, 2004.
35. Charles, A. Reaching out beyond the synapse: glial intercellular waves coordinate metabolism. Science STKE. pe6-8, 2005.
36. Lai, A. , Le, D-N, Paznekas W. E. , Gifford, W.D.,  Jabs, E.W., Charles, A.C. Occulodentodigital dysplasia connexin43 mutations result in nonfunctional connexin hemichannels and gap junctions in C6 glioma cells. Journal of Cell Science. 119(Pt 3):532-41, 2006
37. Ghiani, C.A., Lelievre, V., Beltran-Parrazal., L., Sforza, D., Smith, D., Charles, A., Ferchmin, P., and de Vellis, J.. Gene expression is differentially regulated by neurotransmitters in embryonic cortical culture. Journal of Neurochemistry, 97: 35-43, 2006.
38. Tiwari-Woodruff, S.K., L. Beltran-Parrazal, A.C. Charles, V. Trung,  and J.M. Bronstein. K+ channel Kv3.1 associates with OSP/claudin-11 and regulates oligodendrocyte development. American Journal of Physiology, Cell Physiology, 291: 687-698, 2006.
39. Beltran-Parrazal, L., López-Valdés, L., Brennan, K.C., Díaz-Muñoz, M., de Vellis, J., and A.C. Charles Mitochondrial transport in processes of cortical neurons is independent of intracellular calcium. American Journal of Physiology, Cell Physiology 291: 1193-1197, 2006. 
40.  Ghiani, C.A., Beltran-Parrazal., L., Sforza, D., Malvar, J., Seksenyan, A., Cole, R., Smith, D., Charles, A., Ferchmin, P., and de Vellis, J.  Genetic program of neuronal differentiation and growth induced by specific activation of NMDA receptors. Neurochemical Research, 32: 363-76, 2007.
41. Brennan, K.C., Beltran-Parrazal, L, Lopez-Valdes, H.E., Theriot, J., Toga, A.W., and A.C. Charles, Distinct vascular conduction with cortical spreading depression. Journal of Neurophysiology 96:4143-51, 2007.
42. Brennan, K.C., Romero, M., Arnold, A. and A.C. Charles. Reduced threshold for cortical spreading depression in female mice. Annals of Neurology 61: 603-6, 2007.
43. Charles, A.C., Flippen, C., Romero-Reyes, M., Brennan, K.C. Memantine for prevention of migraine: a retrospective study of 60 cases. Journal of Headache and Pain, 8: 248-50, 2007.
44. Rodriguez, J.A., Helguera, G., Daniels, T., Neacato, I., Lopez-Valdes, H.E., Charles, A.C. and Penichet, M.L. Binding specificity and internalization properties of an antibody-avidin fusion protein targeting the human transferrin receptor. Journal of Controlled Release, 4:124(1-2):35-42, 2007.
45. Karumbayaram, S. Kelly, T.,  Paucar., A., Roe, A.,  Umbach, J., Charles, A., Goldman, S., Kornblum, H., Wiedau-Pazos, M. Human embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons expressing SOD-1 mutants exhibit typical
signs of motor neuron degeneration linked to ALS. Disease Models and Mechanisms, 2(3-4):189-95, 2009. PMCID: PMC2650191
46. Bates E., Nikai T., Brennan K., Fu Y.H., Charles A., Basbaum A.,Ptacek, L., and Ahn, A. Sumatriptan alleviates nitroglycerin-induced mechanical and thermal allodynia in mice. Cephalalgia. 2010; 30(2): 170 -178.
47. Ohara P.T., Vit J.P., Bhargava A., Romero M., Sundberg C., Charles A.C., Jasmin L. Gliopathic pain: when satellite glial cells go bad. Neuroscientist. Oct;15(5):450-63, 2009.
48.  Chang J.C., Shook L.L., Biag J., Nguyen E.N., Toga A.W., Charles A.C., Brennan K.C. Biphasic direct current shift, haemoglobin desaturation and neurovascular uncoupling in cortical spreading depression. Brain. 133:996-1012, 2010.
49.  Lopez-Valdes, H., Beltran, L., Brennan, K.C., and Charles, A.C. Bradykinin increases resensitization of P2Y receptors in glioma cells. Cancer Cell International, 10:35-45, 2010.
50. Rodriguez, J.A., R. Luria-Perez, H.E. Lopez-Valdes, D. Casero, T.R. Daniels, S. Patel, D. Avila, R. Leuchter, S. So, E. Ortiz-Sanchez, B. Bonavida, O. Martinez-Maza, A.C. Charles, M. Pellegrini, G. Helguera, and M.L. Penichet. Lethal iron deprivation induced by non-neutralizing antibodies targeting transferrin receptor 1 in malignant B cells. Leukemia and Lymphoma. 52:2169-2178, 2011.
51.Romero-Reyes, M., S. Akerman, E. Nguyen, A. Vijjeswarapu, B. Hom, H.W. Dong, and A.C. Charles. 2012. Spontaneous Behavioral Responses in the Orofacial Region: A Model of Trigeminal Pain in Mouse. Headache. 53(1):137-51, 2012.
52. Hansen, J.M., R.B. Lipton, D.W. Dodick, S.D. Silberstein, J.R. Saper, S.K. Aurora, P.J. Goadsby, and A. Charles. Migraine headache is present in the aura phase: A prospective study. Neurology. 79:2044-2049, 2012.
53. Clarkson, A., H.E. Lopez-Valdes, J. Overman, A. Charles, K.C. Brennan, and S.T. Carmichael. Multimodal examination of structural and functional remapping in the mouse photothrombotic stroke model. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 33(5):716-23, 2013.
54. Goadsby, P., Charles, A., Durham, P., Creutz, l., Burstein, R., and Kori, S. Mechanism of action of dihydroergotamine- relevance to the treatment of migraine. Neurology. In Press, 2013.
55. Johnston, M., Jordan, S., and Charles, A. Pain referral patterns of the C1-C3 nerve roots: implications for headache disorders. Annals of Neurology. doi: 10.1002/ana.23869, 2013
56. Brennan, K.C., Bates, E., Fu, X, Zyuzin, K., Jones, C., Ptacek, L., and Charles, A. Mutations in casein kinase 1d in familial migraine and advanced sleep phase. Science Translational Medicine. May 1;5(183):183ra56, 2013

Reviews and Editorials
1. Charles, A.C. and Brennan, K.C  Sumatriptan-naproxen combination for acute migraine. Nature Clinical Practice Neurology, 3(11): 604-5, 2007.
2. Brennan, K.C., and Charles, A.C.  A touch of increased pain: allodynia in migraine. Annals of Neurology, 63(2):130-2, 2008.
3. Cutrer, F.M. and Charles, A.C. The neurogenic basis of migraine. Headache 48:1411-4, 2008.
4. Charles, A.  Advances in the basic and clinical science of migraine.  Annals of Neurology 65:491-8, 2009.
5. Charles, A. and Brennan, K.C.  Cortical spreading depression: new insights and persistent questions.  Cephalalgia, Oct;29(10):1115-24, 2010.
6. Brennan, K.C. and Charles, A.C.  Headache and sleep.  "Sleep and headache." Semin Neurol 29(4): 406-18, 2009.
7. Charles A. Does cortical spreading depression initiate a migraine attack? Maybe not. Headache. 50:731-3, 2010.
8. Brennan, K.C. and Charles, A.C. An update on the blood vessel in migraine. Curr Opinion in Neurology. 23(3):266-74, 2010.
9.  Charles A.  Stimulating studies of visual cortical function in migraine. Cephalalgia. 30:643-5, 2010.
10. Charles, A. Progress in Headache – New genes, new mechanisms, new therapies. Lancet Neurology, 10:13-14, 2011.
11. Charles, A. Migraine is not primarily a vascular disorder. Cephalalgia. 32:431-432, 2012.
12. Charles, A. Defining and refining 5-HT receptor targets for migraine. Lancet Neurology. 11:383-384, 2012.    
13. Charles, A. The evolution of a migraine attack-- a review of recent human evidence. Headache, 53(2):413-9, 2013.
14. Charles, A. Migraine: a brain state. Current Opinion in Neurology, 26(3):235-9, 2013.
15. Charles, A. Vasodilation out of the picture as a cause of migraine headache. Lancet Neurology 12(5) 419-20, 2013.

Book Chapters
Merrill, J.E., A.C. Charles and F.C. Martin. The role of substance P in cytokine production by glial cells. In: Biology and Pathology of Astrocyte-Neuron Interaction. 1993.
Charles, A.C. and C. Giaume. Glial calcium waves – underlying mechanisms and functional significance. In: Glia in Synaptic Transmission. P. Haydon and A. Volterra, Eds. 2002.
Charles, A.C. and K.C. Brennan.  Calcium homeostasis in glia. In Encylopedia of Neuroscience Oxford, Academic Press, 559-565, 2009.
Charles, A.C. and Brennan, K.C. Mechanisms of cortical spreading depression as targets for migraine therapy. Innovative Drug Development for Headache Disorders. Oxford University Press, 2009.
Charles, A.C. and  K.C. Brennan. The neurobiology of migraine.  In Handbook of Clinical Neurology 97:99-108, 2010.
Marvizon, J.C., Ma, Y., Charles, A.C., Walwyn, W., and Evans, C. Pharmacology of the Opioid System. In Pharmacology of Pain, IASP Press, p. 87-111, 2010.

Patient Publications
Charles, A.C.  Decreasing brain excitability with migraine therapy: targeting glutamate. In ACHE American Committee for Headache Education) newsletter, December 2008.